Framing

Common Terms

Studs are the vertical members that make up the exterior and interior walls of a house.  They can either be 2x4 or 2x6, depending on the location and the structure.

Rafters are the wooden members that make up the roof structure.  These could be 2x6, 2x8, or even 2x10 depending on the need or the type of structure.


Hip is the angle member of a roof that normally projects or extends up from the corner of a house to the ridge.  These make up the corners and are normally on a 45° angle with the body of a house.
 

Decking Decking refers to the sheathing plywood that is normally put on wood.  This can either be half-inch OSB, half-inch CDX plywood or 5/8, there again, depending on the shingles and the structure of the roof. 


Ceiling Joist are the horizontal members that make up the ceiling and the house.  They can be anywhere from a 2x6 up to a 2x12, depending on the structure and whether there is a floor up above.
 

Hurricane Clips are small metal clips that are normally nailed from the top plate to the edge to the side of the rafter in order to hold a rafter to the top plates.  This is very important in certain parts of the country in order to tie or create a system that is all tied together.
 

Toe Nail is the act of nailing a vertical member or horizontal member at an angle down into a plate, whether it is a top or bottom plate. 
 

Ridge is the main horizontal member that is the highest point of a roof. All common rafters nail into the ridge. The ridge is larger in size than the rafters depending on the load and span of the ridge. If the ridge spans a large distance without braces, the ridge will be increased in size or doubled to increase the strength.
 

Kneewall is a short vertical wall that is built to support other framing members, such as rafters or ceiling joists.
 

Strong Back is a member that is made up of a 2 x 4 nailed flat on top of the ceiling joists. Then a 2 x 6 is stood up vertically and nailed to the side of the 2 x 4. This is to strenghten the ceiling joists and help to hold them straight.
 

Sinkers are particular kinds of nails that are used in framing today.  These are coated nails and come in all different sizes
 

Common Rafters are rafters that are all the same size. These rafters normally form the main body of the roof. In a gable roof the common rafters will go all the way to the end. In a hip roof the common rafters will be used until they reach the hip rafter.
 

Corners are three blocks are spaced one on each end and one in the The three blocks are spaced one on each end and one in the middle on top of a stud and nailed together. The second stud is then placed on the blocks and nailed. The last stud is then placed on the side of the nailed pieces and nailed. The studs for Corners and T's should be hand picked and straight.for Corners and T's should be hand picked and straight.
 

Joist Hangers House Framing Term Joist Hangers are metal devices, which are nailed on the side of girders or other beams in order to lay ceiling joists or floor joists in at another time.  Joist hangers are used to create extra support depending on the weight load and the structure
 

Deadwood House Framing Term Deadwood refers to wood that is placed on top of walls in order to give a place to nail sheet rock or other ceiling material at a later date
 

T's House Framing Term T's are a particular type of framing that is put together out of studs.  The t's are in use to give backing and support where one wall intersects another
 

Shear Panel House Framing Term Shear Panel refers to particular sections of a wall whether it is interior or exterior that is nailed in a particular pattern to create a shear panel or extra bracing depending on the structure or location  

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